Toenail Fungus - Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

What is nail fungus?

Nail fungus, or onychomycosis, as it's clinically called, is a fungal infection of the nails. The fungus most commonly responsible for fungal nail infection is trichophyton rubrum, but epidermophyton floccosum and dermatophyton floccosum are also common culprits. 

37 million people in the United States alone have fingernail or toenail fungus, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. 

While fungal nail infections can affect any age group (including children), they are most common among older adults. In fact, more than half of those infected are 65 years and older, according to a study presented at a meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. Research also consistently shows that men are more likely to be infected with toenail fungus than women. 

Infections can be acute or chronic (the latter being more difficult to treat). Both types usually appear as thickened nails with rough surfaces that tend not to grow much beyond their original shape. In some cases, the skin surrounding these nails also may become scaly and thickened. 

Fungal nail infections can range from mild to severe depending on:

  • the type of fungus that is causing the infection 
  • how long you have had it 
  • your overall health, particularly if you are older or an immune-compromised person 
  • whether the infection site is on your hands or feet 
  • and finally, other infections like athlete's foot fungus.

Causes of nail fungus 

  • Candida infections (or candidiasis) are caused by an overgrowth of the yeast Candida albicans. Fungi and bacteria in the surrounding environment can damage the nail bed, eventually leading to Candida infection. A weakened immune system may increase your risk of this type of fungus. 
  • Nail psoriasis increases susceptibility to fungal infection; plus there is a strong genetic component (that means you're more likely to get it if someone else in your family has had it). 
  • Athlete's foot is another common cause of nail fungus because many people use communal showers and tend not to wash their feet as rigorously as they should. 
  • Thrush and other forms of candida that affect the mouth usually spread underneath fingernails or toenails, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Symptoms of nail fungus 

Fungal infections can lead to thickened nails that become discolored and brittle. Fingernails may thicken at the tips or sides; while toenails tend to thicken all around, depending on the location of infection. A fungal nail infection in either place will usually spread along blood vessels from your toe/finger into your arm. Yellow spots or streaks also can appear as your nail grows. The top surface of the nail may have pits or depression grooves (signs of inflammation known as pitting edema) with or without a white border — the latter hallmark being one way you can identify ringworm, which is an indicative of the presence of mold (health professionals typically use a Wood's lamp to see this).

Treatment options for nail fungus

Toenail Fungus Treatment System - Crystal Flush

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The Crystal Flush Toenail Fungus Treatment System is a complete solution for your toenail fungus problem. Crystal Flush Nail Fungus are scientifically formulated toenail fungus treatment. Crystal Flush has been clinically tested, showing that it produces amazing results that other treatments cannot match. Crystal Flush combines six powerful ingredients such as Dead Sea salt, mineral salts, tea tree oil, and lavender oil. Crystal flush also contains Vitamins A & E which promotes healthy nail growth while preventing recurrence of more fungus and infection. Crystal Flush’s unique Crystal Formulation penetrates deep within your nail and nail bed to combat the fungus from the root. Crystal Flush also contains essential oils such as lavender, tea tree, and lemongrass. These essential oils have their own unique healing qualities and also assist in soothing any inflammation or pain on your toe caused by fungal infections. 

Where to buy Crystal Flush from. Please visit

Crystal Flush & The Reviews

“Crystal Flush is a game-changer and my #1 recommendation for getting rid of your fungus fast." 

"If you’ve been dealing with toe fungus you know how difficult and frustrating it is to treat. Drugstore brands and prescription drugs can take several months and get dismal results, and some even come with some very unpleasant side effects. 

Crystal Flush is a multi-step regimen consisting of both natural and science-backed ingredients. It targets the COMPLETE root causes of fungus – both the internal and external factors. But the key is to start treatment today before it spreads and gets much, much worse. 

I’ve read the science and witnessed the impressive success stories. Crystal Flush is safe, effective, and I’m confident you’ll love the results.”

Dr. Mandira Mehra, M.D. 

Double Board-Certified Physician

Dr. Mandira-Mehra-MD

Prevention tips for nail fungus

Crystal Flush -- Powerful, Natural & Science-Backed Ingredients

Unlike dangerous prescription drugs or painful medical procedures, the Crystal Flush System is side-effect free. What’s more, it’s proven to target the true root cause of nail fungus (a fungal infection happening deep within your body). The Crystal Flush System gives you a peace of mind, ending your battle with ugly, brittle nails for good.

Tolnaftate 1% - Topical Cream
Tolnaftate 1% Topical Cream is available without a prescription. It can treat toenail fungus and fingernail fungus that are affecting your infected nails only. You need to apply it directly over the affected area once per day, before bedtime. An applicator is included in this treatment solution for precise application. Since Crystal Flush contains Tea Tree Oil & Lavender Oil, which are ingredients found in Crystal Flush.
Tea Tree Oil
Crystal Flush contains tea tree oil which is a natural but powerful antifungal ingredient that helps fight both athlete's foot fungus and toenail fungus. Crystal flush tea tree oil formulation assists in keeping your skin healthy and improving circulation around the affected area. Crystal Flush nail fungus treatment penetrates deep within your nail bed, where it needs to be in order to combat the fungus infection. Crystal flush with Tea Tree Oil will also assist in soothing any inflammation or pain on your toe caused by fungal infections. Crystal flush contains essential oils such as Lavender, Lemongrass & Tea Tree Oil .
Role of Citronella Oil in fungus treatment

Citronella, which is also referred to as lemongrass, is a widely used essential oil known for being a natural fungicide. Crystal flush with citronella will also assist in keeping your skin healthy. 

Lavender Oil benefits in treating nail fungus. 

Lavender oil has anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties, while also exhibiting nail-soothing benefits. According to the results of the research, lavender oil contains various fungus-eliminating compounds including linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol and geraniol. These components have proven to be effective against both dermatophytes (those that infect keratinized tissue) and yeasts responsible for nail fungus infections.

What are the Benefits of Caprylic Acid in Treatment of Fungus?

Found in coconut oil, this acid has been shown to significantly reduce symptoms of a fungus infection lurking deep within the gut. 

Consumption of Caprylic Acid in the form of Organic Coconut Oil has been found effective for treatment of fingernail and toenail fungus. 

People suffering from Fingernail and Toenail fungus can benefit by consuming organic virgin coconut oil, which is high in caprylic acid. 

Caprylic acid, or octanoic acid, acts as a fungicide against microorganisms that cause fungal infections on nails. It also acts as a broad spectrum antifungal agent against dermatophytes (fungi that grow specifically in the skin). 

The most common cause of nail discoloration is associated with an infection caused by dermatophytes. If you have tried all other possible treatments, current research suggests that you should try using organic coconut oil, which is high in caprylic acid. 

Human nails are composed of protein, with a hard tip made from keratin (the same material that makes hair and skin). Fungi can invade the nail through cracks or splits. When this happens, they interfere with the normal growth cycle of the nail. 

The fungus digests parts of the nail, which forces it to grow out rather than down. The result is a thickening and discoloration of the nail plate (called onychomycosis ). As the infected portion gets thicker, it becomes more susceptible to infection and to breakage, causing pieces of the infected nail plate to curl up under your finger or toe-nail.

Cellulase and protease are used in treating nail fungus.

Both of these naturally occurring digestive enzymes help to fight fungus. Protease is theorized to help remove the protein within the fungal cell while cellulase helps digest the cellular walls.

Black Walnut
Clinical studies have shown that black walnuts can improve gut health by increasing "good" bacteria and decreasing "bad" bacteria with the intestinal ecosystem.
The active compound in oregano has been reported to kill bad bacteria in the gut, one of the leading causes of stubborn fungal infections.


Factual sentences referenced across top search results:
  • According to a 2016 review, thymol has antifungal and antibacterial properties. (
  • According to a 2012 review, taking one to three olive leaf capsules with meals twice daily is more effective than olive leaf salve in treating toenail fungus. (
  • According to a 2011 study, this type of ozone exposure in low concentrations for a short duration can then inactivate many organisms such as fungi, yeast, and bacteria. (
  • According to a 2012 study, chronic toenail fungus is a significant risk factor for bacterial cellulitis of the leg. (
  • To treat athlete's foot, mix a carrier oil like warm coconut oil with tea tree oil for a concentration of 25 to 50 percent tea tree oil. You can apply it directly to the affected area or soak your feet in a footbath of 70 percent rubbing alcohol and 30 percent water for 30 minutes. (
  • One older study even found that a derivative of garlic, alone, resulted in a complete cure in 79 percent of participants Trusted Source after just 7 days. (
  • Treatment of interdigital tinea pedis with 25% and 50% tea tree oil solution: a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study. (
  • Zinc undecylenate 20% and Undecylenic acid 5% (
  • Undecylenic acid (10%) | Dose: Apply at the cuticle and at the edge of each infected nail twice daily using the brush applicator. (

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